The following was kindly compiled by Meg Dunn who worked at Cluny for many years but sadly died in 2005. She was an accomplished botanist and loved Cluny. Her effort, knowledge, photography and friendship are greatly missed by us all.

Cluny is often described as a ‘wild garden’ so as not to give visitors the idea that they should expect formally laid out beds. The predominance of plants found wild in the Himalayas gives a wonderful idea of the landscape and vegetation of far away places, yet the native wild flora of Perthshire survives alongside these exotics. Within the garden, though constantly hand weeded to eliminate the most invasive ‘weeds’, wild plants native to the surrounding area are tolerated and indeed often encouraged.

The garden slopes steeply from the lawn with an aspect that is north east to south east. Soils are light, sandy and slightly acid, but the acidity is variable, depending upon drainage. The naturally free draining soil is enhanced by the application of large quantities of leaf mould and home produced compost helping the soil to retain moisture. The remnant natural flora reflects the past history of the site, which though open farmland 50 years ago, shows characteristics of native woodland. Such species as bluebell, wood anemone and sanicle indicate ancient woodland.

Just inside the entrance gateway to Cluny a sunny bank above the road is managed as an open grassland, cut only once per year, in September. As this type of ‘hay meadow’ habitat takes a decade or more to develop naturally, suitable native wild plants been introduced by plug planting.

The greater part of the garden is woodland with varying degrees of shade. Wild plants range from meadow species in the lighter areas, to shade tolerators under the trees. Where trees fall or are felled there is an initial burst of ruderal plants (opportunists such as Self Heal (Prunella Vulgaris), taking advantage of the sunlight. Yet these species would not be found under dense woodland. Sanicle on the other hand requires dense shade, and living for between 60-360 years may live as long as the trees beneath which it grows!

Adoxa moschatellina (Town Hall Clock)

Aegopodium podagraria (Ground Elder)

Anchusa officinalis (Alkanet)

Anemone nemorosa (Wood Anemone)

Anthriscus sylvestris (Cow Parsley)

Bellis perennis (Common Daisy)

Caltha palustris (Kingcup)

Cardimine hirsuta (Hairy Bittercress)

Cardimine pratensis (Cuckoo flower)

Centaurea nigra (Knapweed)

Chrysoplenium oppositifolium (Opposite leaved golden saxifrage)

Cimbarlaria muralis (Ivy leaved toadflax)

Circaea lutetiana (Enchanters Nightshade)

Cirsium arvense (Creeping Thistle)

Cirsium vulgare (Spear Thistle)

Conopodium majus (Pignut)

Dactylrhiza fuchsii (Spotted Orchid)

Digitalis purpurea (Foxglove)

Endymion non scriptus (Bluebell)

Epilobium angustifolium (Rose-bay Willowherb)

Epilobium montanum (Broadleaved Willowherb)

Filipendula ulmaria (Meadowsweet)

Fragaria vesca (Wild Strawberry)

Galium aparine (Cleavers)

Geum urbanum (Herb Bennet)

Helleborus foetidus (Stinking Hellebore)

Heracleum spondyllium (Hogweed)

Hieracium aurantiacum (Orange Hawkweed)

Hieracium pilosella (Mouse ear Hawkweed)

Hypericum perforatum (Perforate St Johns Wort)

Lamium purpureum (Red Dead-nettle)

Leucanthemum vulgare (Ox-eye Daisy)

Linaria vulgaris (Common Toadflax)

Lychnis Flos-cuculi (Ragged Robin)

Lysimachia nemorum (Yellow pimpernel)

Malva moschata (Musk mallow)

Meconopsis cambrica (Welsh Poppy)

Mercurialis perennis (Dogs Mercury)

Montia perfoliata (Spring Beauty)

Montia sibirica (Pink Purslane)

Mycelis muralis (Wall Lettuce)

Oxalis acetosella (Wood Sorrel)

Plantago lanceolata (Ribwort Plantain)

Plantago major (Greater Plantain)

Potentilla sterilis (Barren Strawberry)

Primula elatior (Oxlip)

Primula veris (Cowslip)

Primula vulgaris (Primrose)

Prunella vulgaris (Self Heal)

Ranunculus ficaria (Lesser Celandine)

Ranunculus repens (Creeping Buttercup)

Rubus fruticosus (Bramble)

Rubus ideaus (Raspberry)

Rumex acetosa (Common Sorrel)

Rumex obtusifolius (Broad leaved Dock)

Sanicula europaea (Sanicle)

Scrophularia nodosa (Figwort)

Senecio jacobaea (Ragwort)

Senecio vulgare (Groundsel)

Silene alaba (White campion)

Silene dioica (Red Campion)

Sonchus oleraceus (Smooth Sowthistle)

Stachys sylvatica (Hedge Woundwort)

Stellaria holostea (Greater Stitchwort)

Stellaria media (Common Chickweed)

Symphytum sp. (Comfrey)

Taraxicum officinalis (Dandelion)

Trifolium arvense (Hare’s foot Clover)

Trifolium pratense (Red Clover)

Trifolium repens (White Clover)

Tussilago farfara (Coltsfoot)

Urtica dioica (Nettle)

Veronica chamaedrys (Germander Speedwell)

Veronica hederifolia (Ivy leaved Speedwell)

Veronica persica (Field Speedwell)

Vicia sepium (Bush Vetch)

Viola tricolor (Wild Pansy)

Viola riviniana (Common Dog Violet)


Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric)

Amanita rubescens (The Blusher)

Aminata vaginata (Grisette)

Amanita crocea (Orange Grisette)

Amanita fulva (Tawny Grisette)

Lepiota procera (Parasol Mushroom)

Lepiota rhacodes (Shaggy Parasol)

Armillaria mellea (Honey Fungus)

Armillaria polymyces (Honey Fungus variant)

Oudemansiella mucida (Porcelain or Poached Egg Fungus)

Tricholoma leucocephalum

Tricholompsis rutilans (Plums and custard)

Melanoleuca arcuata 

Clitocybe houghtonii

Clitocybe infundibuliformis (Common Funnel Cap)

Clitocybe odora (Aniseed toadstool)

Laccaria laccata (Deceiver)

Collybia dryophila (Russet Toughshank)

Collybia confluens (Clustered Tough-shank)

Hgrocybe vitellina

Hygrocybe psittacina (Parrot Toadstool)

Marasmius oreades (Fairy Ring Champignon)

Marasmius androsaceus (Horse Hair Fungus)

Marasmius rotula (Collared Paracute)

Baeospora myosura 

Mycena galericulata (Bonnet Mycena)

Mycena galopus (Milking Bonnet)

Mycena pura (Lilac Bonnet)

Mycena leptocephala (Nitrous Bonnet)

Lactarius torminosus (Woolly Milkcap)

Lactarius pyrogalus (Fiery Milgcap)

Lactarius spinosulus (Lilacscale Milkcap)

Lactarius blennius (Slimy Milkcap)

Lactarius turpis (Ugly milkcap)

Lactarius uvidus

Russual nigricans (Blackening Russula)

Russula laurocerasi

Russula foetens (Fetid Russula)

Russula ochroleuca (Common Yellow Russula)

Russula fellea (Geranium-scented Russula)

Russula violeipes (Velvet Brittlegill)

Russula parazurea (Powdery Brittlegill)

Russula fragilis (Fragile Russula)

Russula atropurpurea (Blackish-purple Russula)

Russula nitida (Purple Swamp Brittlegill)

Russula xerampelina (Crab Brittlegill)

Russala aeruginea (Green Brittlegill)

Russala velenovskyi (Coral Brittlegill)

Russala lepida

Clitopilus prunulus (The Miller)

Lepista sordida

Entoloma porphyrophaeum (Lilac Pinkgill)

Pluteus podospileus

Pluteus cervinus (Deer Shield)

Cortinarius cinnamomeus (Cinnamon Webcap)

Paxillus involutus (Brown Roll-rim)

Gymnopilus junonius (Spectacular Rustgill)

Pholiota squarrosa (Shaggy Pholiota)

Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Poison Pie)

Inocybe geophylla var lilacina (Lilac Fibrecap)

Bolbitius vitellinus (Yellow Fieldcap)

Galerina (sp)

Hypholoma fasiculare (Sulphur Tuft)

Hypholoma sublateritum (Brick Caps)

Agaricus arvensis (Horse Mushroom)

Agrocybe erebia (Dark Fieldcap)

Coprinus (sp)

Coprinus atramentarius (Common Ink Cap)

Panaeolus rickenii

Panaeolina foenisecii (Brown Mottlegill)

Crepidotus variabilis (Variable Oysterling)

Boletus edulis (Cep)

Boletus piperatus (Peppery Boletus)

Boletus lanatus

Boletus porosporus (Sepia Bolete)

Boletus chrysenteron (Red-cracked Boletus)

Boletus pruinatus (Matt Bolete)

Cantharellus cibarius (Chanterelle)

Leccinum scabrum (Brown Birch Bolete)

Suillus flavidus

Polyporous squamosus (Dryad’s Saddle)

Grifola frondosa (Hen of the woods)

Ganoderma applanatum (Artist’s Fungus)

Coriolus versiclour (Many-zoned Polypore)

Stereum hirsutum (Hairy Stereum)

Lycoperdon perlatum (Common Puffball)

Bovista nigrescens (Brown Puffball)

Scleroderma verrucosum (Scaly Earthball)

Phallus impudicus (Stinkhorn)

Clavariadelphus fistulosus

Clavulina rugosa (Wrinkled Club)

Clavulina cristata (White Coral Fungus)

Calocera cornea (Small Stagshorn)

Gyromitra esculenta (False Morel)

Helvella lacunosa (Black Helvella)

Peziza repanda (Palamino Cup)

Otidia alutacea (Tan Ear)

Otidea cochleata (Brown Ear)

Xylaria hypoxylon (Stag’s Horn Fungus)

Xylaria longipes (Dead Moll’s Fingers)

Xylaria carpophila (Beechmast Candlesnuff)

Lachnellula subtillissima (Conifer Disco)

Nectria cinnabarina (Coral Spot Fungus)

There are a significant number of habitats within the garden for fungi to grow including grass, dead or decaying wood, various types of leaf litter and around specific host plants. This by no means an exhaustive list of Cluny’s fungi but it is an attempt to show the range of species which have been found within the garden. We are not experts in identifying fungi so there may be the odd misidentification.

We are very grateful for fungi records from the Edinburgh Natural History Society who visited Cluny in August 1994, the local SWT group in September 2003 and Joyce Pitt and Jo Weightman in August .